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2017 年上半年软件设计师上午试题分析与解答(7)

《软件设计师历年真题解析》本书针对软件设计师2014—2017年共8次真题进行了试题的分析和解答,帮助考生熟悉试题形式,了解重点、掌握解答问题的方法和技巧等。本节为2017 年上半年软件设计师上午试题分析与解答。

作者:薛大龙来源:电子工业出版社|2018-08-21 12:45

2017 年上半年软件设计师上午试题分析与解答(7)

● 在异步通信中,每个字符包含1 位起始位、7 位数据位和2 位终止位,若每秒钟传送500 个字符,则有效数据速率为 (69) 。

(69) A.500b/s B.700b/s C.3500b/s D.5000b/s

试题分析

总的数据速率为(1+7+2)×500=5000,其中有效数据是7 位,那么有效数据速率为
5000×7/10=3500(b/s)。

参考答案:(69)C

● 以下路由策略中,依据网络信息经常更新路由的是 (70) 。

(70) A.静态路由 B.洪泛式 C.随机路由 D.自适应路由

试题分析

静态路由是指由用户或网络管理员手工配置的路由信息。当网络的拓扑结构或链路的状态发生变化时,网络管理员需要手工去修改路由表中相关的静态路由信息。

随机路由使用前向代理来收集网络中的有限全局信息,即当前节点到其源节点的旅行时间,并以此来更新节点的旅行时间表。

洪泛路由是一种简单的路由算法,将收到的封包,往所有的可能连接路径上递送,直到封包到达为止。

动态路由是自适应路由选择算法,是指路由器能够自动地建立自己的路由表,并且能够根据实际情况的变化适时地进行调整。

参考答案:(70)D

● The beauty of software is in its function, in its internal structure, and in the way in which it is created by a team. To a user, a program with just the right features presented through an intuitive and (71) interface is beautiful. To a software designer, an internal structure that is partitioned in a simple and intuitive manner, and that minimizes internal coupling is beautiful. To developers and
managers, a motivated team of developers making significant progress every week, and producing defect-free code, is beautiful. There is beauty on all these levels.

Our world needs software--lots of software. Fifty years ago software was something that ran in a few big and expensive machines. Thirty years ago it was something that ran in most companiesand industrial settings. Now there is software running in our cell phones, watches, appliances,automobiles, toys, and tools. And need for new and better software never (72) . As ourcivilization grows and expands, as developing nations build their infrastructures, as developednations strive to achieve ever greater efficiencies, the need for more and more Software (73) toincrease. It would be a great shame if, in all that software,there was no beauty.

We know that software can be ugly. We know that it can be hard to use, unreliable, and carelessly structured. We know that there are software systems whose tangled and careless internal structures make them expensive and difficult to change. We know that there are software systems that present their features through an awkward and cumbersome interface. We know that there are software systems that crash and misbehave. These are (74) systems. Unfortunately, as a profession, software developers tend to create more ugly systems than beautiful ones.

There is a secret that the best software developers know. Beauty is cheaper than ugliness.Beauty is faster than ugliness. A beautiful software system can be built and maintained in less time,and for less money, than an ugly one. Novice software developers don't understand this. They think that they have to do everything fast and quick. They think that beauty is (75) . No! By doing things fast and quick, they make messes that make the software stiff, and hard to understand,Beautiful systems are flexible and easy to understand. Building them and maintaining them is a joy.It is ugliness that is impractical. Ugliness will slow you down and make your software expensive and brittle. Beautiful systems cost the least build and maintain, and are delivered soonest.

(71) A.Simple B.Hard C.Complex D.duplicated

(72) A.happens B.exists C.stops D.starts

(73) A.starts B.continues C.appears D.stops

(74) A.practical B.useful C.beautiful D.ugly

(75) A.impractical B.perfect C.time-wasting D.practical

试题分析

翻译:

软件的优点在于其功能、内部结构,以及由团队创建的方式。对于用户来说,通过直观和(71)界面呈现的正确功能的程序是出色的软件。对于软件设计师来说,分割的内部结构是一种简单而直观的方式,最小化内部耦合是美观的。对于开发人员和经理来说,一个积极的开发团队每周都取得重大进展,并且生产无缺陷的代码是件美好的事情。

我们的世界需要大量软件。五十年前,软件是在大多数公司和工业环境中运行的。现在软件存在于我们的手机、手表、电器、汽车、玩具和工具中。并且对新的和更好的软件的需求永远不会(72)。随着我们文明的发展和壮大,随着发展中国家建设基础设施,发达国家努力实现更高的效率,越来越多的软件需求(73)增长。如果在所有的软件中没有美存在的话,这将是一个很大的耻辱。

我们知道软件可能很难使用,有不可靠,粗心大意的结构。我们知道这些结构使得它们变得昂贵和难以改变。我们知道有一些软件系统通过尴尬和繁琐的界面来呈现其功能。我们知道有软件系统崩溃和捣乱行为。这些都是(74)系统。不幸的是,作为专业人士,软件开发人员开发出难用的系统多过开发好用的系统。

这是优秀的软件开发者知道的秘密:好用的软件比难用的更便宜、更快。一个好用的软件系统相对于一个难用的系统来说,建立和维护要花的时间与金钱会少得多。很多新手软件开发人员不明白这一点。他们认为做每一个事情必须快速,更快速。他们认为软件之美是(75)。不!快速开发使软件变得僵硬,难以理解;而好用的系统灵活易懂,使得开发和维护工作成为一种快乐。难用的软件不切实际,会减慢速度,会使软件昂贵而脆弱。美观的系统成本最低,建立和维护成本最低,交货时间也最短。

(71) A.简单 B.困难 C.复杂 D.复制品

(72) A.发生 B.存在 C.停止 D.开始

(73) A.开始 B.持续 C.出现 D.停止

(74) A.实用的 B.有用的 C.美丽的 D.丑陋的

(75) A.不实用的 B.完美的 C.浪费时间的 D.实用的

参考答案:(71)A (72)C (73)B (74)D (75)A


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